Phenacetin was introduced in 1887 in Elberfeld by German company Bayer, and was used principally as an analgesic; it was one of the first synthetic fever reducers to go on the market.
Levobupivacaine is indicated for local anaesthesia including infiltration, nerve block, ophthalmic, epidural and intrathecal anaesthesia in adults; and infiltration analgesia in children.
Benzocaine is indicated to treat a variety of pain-related conditions.
Ropivacaine HCl Basic Info
Melting point 260-262°
alpha D25 -6.6° (c = 2 in water)
CAS DataBase Reference 98717-15-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
Ropivacaine HCl Product Detail
Ropivacaine is contraindicated for intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA). However, new data suggested both ropivacaine (1.2-1.8 mg/kg in 40ml) and levobupivacaine (40 ml of 0.125% solution) be used, because they have less cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity than racemic bupivacaine.
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are rare when it is administered correctly. Most ADRs relate to administration technique (resulting in systemic exposure) or pharmacological effects of anesthesia, however allergic reactions can rarely occur.
Systemic exposure to excessive quantities of ropivacaine mainly result in central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular effects – CNS effects usually occur at lower blood plasma concentrations and additional cardiovascular effects present at higher concentrations, though cardiovascular collapse may also occur with low concentrations. CNS effects may include CNS excitation (nervousness, tingling around the mouth, tinnitus, tremor, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures followed by depression (drowsiness, loss of consciousness), respiratory depression and apnea). Cardiovascular effects include hypotension, bradycardia, arrhythmias, and/or cardiac arrest – some of which may be due to hypoxemia secondary to respiratory depression.
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